Reliable methods are needed for classifying the robustness of buildings and building materials for many reasons, including ensuring that constructions can withstand the climate conditions resulting from global warming, which might be more severe than was assumed in an existing building’s design. Evaluating the robustness of buildings is also important for reducing process-induced building defects. We describe and demonstrate a flexible framework for classifying the robustness of building materials, building assemblies, and whole buildings that incorporates climate and service life considerations.
A simple, mild, and effective template approach has been used to produce hollow silica nanospheres with controlled sizes ranging from 40 to 150 nanometers. The obtained powders showed systematic variations in measured thermal conductivity, with values down to 0.024 W/(mK) so far, with en expressed goal to reach below 0.020 W/(mK). Surface hydrophobization was successfully performed. Thus, hollow silica nanospheres are considered to be promising building blocks for new hydrophobic, superinsulating materials.