The current state and future challenges of energy and buildings research are explored from the perspective of the social study of science. Major trends in knowledge production are considered for practices within current energy and buildings research. New forms of knowledge production hold the potential to provide clearer strategies to overcome barriers between researchers and practitioners. These are investigated through an explorative survey of researchers based on their own accounts of energy and buildings research, their expectations of future challenges, and their perceptions of ‘good’ science. Two sets of challenges from knowledge production arise for building energy research. First, with an increasing focus on environmental and other impacts of the research, the framing and definition of these extra-scientific factors will become a significant challenge for researchers. Second, as buildings become simultaneously more complex and more connected, the already existing need for the integration of different kinds of expertise will increase further.