Aerogels are regarded as one of the most promising high performance thermal insulation materials for building applications today. With a thermal conductivity down to 13 mW/(m K) for commercial products they show remarkable characteristics compared to traditional thermal insulation materials. Also the possibility of high transmittances in the solar spectrum is of high interest for the construction sector. With the proper knowledge they give both the architect and engineer the opportunity of re-inventing architectural solutions. Within this work, a review is given on the knowledge of aerogel insulation in general and for building applications in particular.